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I’m working on a history report and need an explanation to help me understand better.History 238 Zamani Final Country Essay Due December 16th by 11:59 PM Review the following notes on your country of Zamani. Develop a 750-1000 word essay + responding to the prompt listed at the end of the reading. Make your answer complete and reference sources from you readings, lectures, and Africa Review research. Note: You cannot “create resources out of thin air.” Your expenditures must be based on available resources and you must outline a process for avoidance of significant debt and political or social instability. You are free to develop long term planning beyond your tenure in office and you must include regional engagement for the development of Zamani. The following African country received independence during the 1960s. The country’s economic and political structures display the characteristics of the majority of African countries. Zamani is located in east/central Africa and has a population of 15 million. Zamani is approximately the size of the West African country of Cote d’Ivoire or about the comparable size of the state of New Mexico in the United States.Zamani received independence in 1965. The movements of independence and national liberation were led by the labor unions and the intellectual elite. The terms and dates of independence were established via negotiations with the former colonizing country of the 19th century. Economically the country exhibits the characteristics of most developing countries. Under your leadership party the Zamani Peoples Party (ZPP) won the last election and currently holds a slight edge in the parliament (54%-46%). There are two opposition parties; one of them is an ethnically based party and the other is a labor/worker’s party that has advocated for increased wages and increased trade protections for farmers. Your country’s borders include 30 different ethnic language groups. Voter turnout in the last election was 50%. Zamani’s populace is fairly equally divided between being Muslim and Christian. The percentage of youth (ages 16-25) in Zamani is about 40% of your population. The official language of Zamani is English and the large percentage of the populace (90%) speaks a dialect of the Bantu language group. The colonial boundaries of the country have divided some languages groups into neighboring countries.Over 60% of your trade is focused with the former pre-independence colonial power. You have made some minor deals with China, Turkey, and England — particularly in the areas of oil and mineral exploitation. Petroleum represents a small percentage (15%) of Zamani’s GNP and iron and coltan represent less than 15% respectively. Agricultural exports of food for European commodity markets represent about 40% of your economy and fluctuate yearly based on demand. The remainder of your GNP is derived from manufacturing exports, principally clothing and the assembly of electronic equipment for export. The initial assembly of the clothing and electronic equipment is completed in Asia and then exported to Zamani for the finishing stages. The yearly income of an average Zamani citizen is about $1200. The United Nations Human Development Index which measures life expectancy, standard of living, and GDP would quality Zamani as a middle development to low development country.Zamani has good agricultural land — both mountains and fertile valleys. The major export crops include cotton, tea, coffee, and cattle. The processing and distribution of your cotton, tea, and coffee products are done through global marketing boards and buyers that are based in Europe and the United States. Zamani imports more than 60% of its food but grows basic food crops. During your last term each year required a request to the UN to provide food rations for citizens who crops were too small or impacted by drought. Your coastal beaches and “big game “animal reserves have drawn increasing tourism over the last 15 years. Tourism has expanded in the last two years. Preliminary studies have indicated that the cost of establishing tourism would be offset by revenues within five years. The ports and the beaches of Zamani are located in the south. The coast of Zamani has potential to support a fishing industry that could provide fish for national consumption and modest export. Zamani’s request for funds from the World Bank to develop the fishing industry have been denied for the last 5 years. Your goal, if you can find funding, is to purchase boats for the fishing industry and construct a processing plant for export. The Zamani Parliament is divided in half on using state funds for this fishing tourism. Parlimentary represenatives have cited increasing debt and the growing presence of foreign fish trawlers who are depleting off shore deep fishing stock. Zamani has received funds from the United States and the United Nations to support health initiatives and emergency food aid for rural areas. You have military cooperation agreements with the United States and Great Britain to train the Zamani military for crisis intervention on the African continent. There is currently a discussion in the Zamani parliament as to whether to become part of the United States led joint military command-AFRICOM. There is concern from western counties that groups/individuals that support “terrorism” are establishing contacts inside Zamani. Diplomatic relations have been tense with the west over issues of western subsidies for food crops that undercut the market for farmers in Zamani. Zamani has debt to international lenders. There has been discussion but no implementation of a land re-distribution program. The yearly service on the debt represents about 25% of your country’s GNP. Zamani’s economy has shown a 3% growth rate over the last 2 years. Youth employment remains at about 30% in Zamani. In the last year unemployment has increased due to the impact of COVID19 and the closing of businesses. Zamani has two key ports and a good system of roads and some rail lines. Politically the country is located in eastern/central Africa. In the 40-year history of your country there have been 3 military coups. The last military coup occurred 12 years ago. Each presidential term is five years and a president can only serve a total of 10 years or two terms. There have been minor ethnic clashes over issues of land and cattle and local political appointments. Zamani provides free health care for children under the age of 12. Civil society, students, and Community Based Organizations (CBO’s) have gone on record in opposition to the involvement of the military in the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the government. Education is partially subsidized through primary education. There are fee-based universities in your country. The literacy rate of the population of Zamani is 55%. The retention of quality medical staff and teachers has been complicated by Zamani inability to increase salaries to compliment the cost of living. There are several NGO’s in Zamani — the majority of them focused on issues of women’s rights, HIV/AIDS, and youth empowerment. The International Monetary Fund is requesting that Zamani decrease the amount of state expenditures for education and health care.Zamani is bordered by 3 other countries in the region. In the neighboring country of Orisha there has been an on-going civil conflict for the last 15 years. This has resulted in some minor border violations and in approximately 1 million refugees transiting into Zamani. During your last term as President you were involved in regional dialogues to place an UN/AU peacekeeper in Orisha. The conflict has resulted in some militarization along our borders and inside the country. There have been human rights violations by outside militias and Zamani Para-military groups that have drawn the attention of the International Criminal Court (ICC). The ICC has issued a hold and arrest warrant for a militia leader that is opposed to the leadership of the Zamani Peoples Party. Increasing tensions on the border have forced the government to make a bigger military commitment towards resolution of the conflict. One of the questions dominating the Zamani national dialogue is the possible need for a Truth and Reconciliation CommissionThe country of Sasha that borders Zamani is dominated by two distinct language speaking groups. Since achieving independence in the 1970s the economy of Sasha has been dominated economically by a small European elite. The country principally exports cut flowers and vegetables to European markets. Import goods that are destined for Sasha arrive at Zamani ports and are transported across land to the capital city. The bordering country of Mandabi is about half the size of Zamani and is principally agricultural. Recent discoveries of copper and manganese ore are being developed by the governments of China and India. Mandabi has a small port to the sea that is in need of upgrading. The majority of imports and exports from Mandabi do not cross Zamani territory. Mandabi is politically stable and has been ruled by the same party for the last 20 years.What will be your 11 (eleven)priority policy objectives for your next five years. These objectives can include any aspects of Zamani’s development. They must address the goals of bringing political stability, social unity, and economic security and development. They should establish policies that can assist Zamani in avoiding the pitfalls of development and underdevelopment. They should address the key issues that will put Zamani on a firm footing to national and regional stability. Please list your policy objective in order of implementation and importance.ASSIGNMENT: Please list your policy objectives in order of implementation and importance. Each policy objective should include a brief explanation of its importance and the rationale behind its rank order.Your grade will be enhanced by referencing examples from course readings, lectures, and your research for your Africa Review. Please cite specific examples as the basis for your selection of policy objectives
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