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QUESTION 1Jennifer, age 45, is a Girl Scout leader. She states that she really e

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QUESTION 1Jennifer, age 45, is a Girl Scout leader. She states that she really enjoys giving to and guiding the next generation. According to Erikson, Jennifer has developed a sense of what?IntimacyGenerativityGuiltStagnation
5 points QUESTION 2According to ecological systems theory, interactions between Marina and her child occur in the _________.MicrosystemMesosystemExosystemMacrosystem
5 points QUESTION 3According to B. F. Skinner, __________ will increase the frequency of a behavior and __________ will decrease the frequency of a behavior.Punishment; ReinforcementReinforcement; PunishmentModeling; ReinforcementPunishment; Imitation
10 points QUESTION 4According to Piaget, thought in middle childhood is far more __________than in early childhood.RigidLogicalDisorganizedSingular
5 points QUESTION 5What does Bronfenbrenner’s macrosystem consist of?Activities and interaction patterns in the individual’s immediate surroundingsThird parties that affect the quality of the parent-child relationshipCultural values, laws, customs, and resourcesSocial settings that do not contain the developing person but nevertheless affect experiences
10 points QUESTION 6Jamar understands that a certain amount of liquid or clay remains the same even after its appearance changes and can organize objects into hierarchies of classes and subclasses. According to Piaget, Jamar is in the ___________stage of cognitive development.SensorimotorPreoperationalConcrete operationalSociocultural
5 points QUESTION 7According to _________theory, children learn primarily through modeling.ReinforcementOperant conditioningSocial learningClassical conditioning
5 points QUESTION 8Twenty-two-year-old Daniel is overly dependent on his girlfriend, Missy. Daniel continually doubts his ability to meet new challenges. Daniel may not have fully mastered the tasks of _______and________during infancy and childhood.Mistrust; shameTrust; doubtTrust; autonomyAutonomy; mistrust
10 points QUESTION 9According to Erikson, a healthy outcome during infancy depends on this.Amount of food offeredAmount of oral stimulation offeredChanneling of biological drivesQuality of caregiving
5 points QUESTION 10Ecological systems theory views the person as _______.A blossoming flower, and it regards development as a maturational processDeveloping within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment.A social being influenced primarily by observational learning or adult modelingA computer-like system that actively codes, transforms, and organizes information
10 points QUESTION 11Gilles finds it difficult to consider two points of view when presented with the “Heinz dilemma.” He tends to overlook people’s intentions and, instead, focuses on fear of authority and avoidance of punishment as reasons for behaving morally. Gilles is at which of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development?Stage 1: the punishment and obedience orientationStage 2: the instrumental purpose orientationStage 3: the “good-boy—good-girl” orientationStage 4: the social-order-maintaining orientation
10 points QUESTION 12According to Bandura’s social-cognitive theory, as children grow older they do what?Become more selective in what they imitateBecome less selective in what they imitateImitate more than they modelRespond more favorably to punishment than reinforcement
5 points QUESTION 13What does conservation refer to?Failure to distinguish others’ symbolic viewpoints from one’s ownBelief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentionsInability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting pointIdea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes
5 points QUESTION 14Every time baby Gloria nurses, she is placed on a nursing pillow. Gloria’s mom later noticed that each time Gloria was placed on the pillow, she made sucking movements. In this example, __________is the conditioned stimulus.Breast milkSuckingCryingPlacement on the pillow
5 points QUESTION 15Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory, information processing, and Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory all stress what?Nature over nurtureChanges in thinkingUnconscious motives and drivesThe effects of punishment and reinforcement on behavior
5 points QUESTION 16According to Erikson, the psychological conflict of early adulthood is:Initiative versus guildIndustry versus inferiorityIdentity versus role confusionIntimacy versus isolation
5 points QUESTION 17In Piaget’s theory, 8- to 12-month-olds can use ___________to solve simple problems.Goal-directed behaviorReflexive schemesMake-believePrimary circular reactions
5 points QUESTION 18According to the _________perspective, people move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations.NormativeBehaviorismSocial learningPsychoanalytic
5 points QUESTION 19According to Jean Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory,Children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their worldChildren’s learning depends on reinforcers, such as rewards from adultsAdult teaching is the best way to foster developmentRapid development occurs during sensitive periods
5 points QUESTION 20According to Erikson, when they psychological conflict of late adulthood is resolved negatively, adults will experience what?GuiltIsolationStagnationDespair
5 points QUESTION 21Behavior modification eliminates undesirable behaviors by what?Exposing children to group therapyHaving patients talk freely about painful childhood eventsImproving children’s social settings, such as school and homeCombining conditioning and modeling
5 points QUESTION 22According to Piaget, the most obvious change as children move from the sensorimotor to the preoperational stage is an increase in what?Representational, or symbolic, activityPrivate speechLogical thoughtAbstract thought
10 points QUESTION 23In a historic experiment with 11-month-old Albert, what did John Watson demonstrate?Children cannot be conditioned to fear a formerly neutral stimulusInfants as young as a few months old will repeat a behavior to obtain a desirable rewardChildren can be conditioned to fear a formerly neutral stimulusChildren have an innate, inborn fear of rats.
10 points QUESTION 24Once formed, what does identity do?Continues to be refined in adulthood as people reevaluate earlier commitments and choicesRemains stable throughout the lifespanTends to be rigid, which can drastically limit adolescents’ choicesPrevents people from questioning their values and priorities
5 points QUESTION 25Vygotsky saw __________ play as the ideal social context for fostering cognitive development in early childhood.Make-believeOutdoorCooperativeParallel
5 points QUESTION 26Sydney, when faced with a problem, starts with a hypothesis, deduces testable inferences, and isolates and combines variables to see which inferences are confirmed. Sydney is in Piaget’s _________stage of development.SensorimotorPreoperationalConcrete operationalFormal operational
5 points QUESTION 27Theories are vital tools for developmental researchers because they do what?Ensure proper use of research proceduresIllustrate the ultimate truth regarding human behaviorProvide organizing frameworks for our observations of peopleDo not require scientific verification
5 points QUESTION 28According to Erikson, the psychological conflict of the preschool years is what?Trust versus mistrustAutonomy versus shame and doubtIndustry versus inferiorityInitiative versus guilt
5 points QUESTION 29Two-year-old Carmen is trying to fit pieces into a wooden puzzle form. Her father helps Carmen turn the pieces so they fit snuggly in place. As Carmen’s skill improves, her father steps back, letting her try on her own. This example best illustrates the concept of what?Novelty preferenceAccommodationSustained attentionScaffolding
5 points QUESTION 30Six-month-old Eva drops her teething ring in a fairly rigid way, simply letting go and watching it with interest. This example demonstrates Piaget’s belief that, at first, schemes are ___________.Sensorimotor action patternsDeliberateCreativeAwkward and disorganized
5 points QUESTION 31Adolescents who reach the formal operational stage of cognitive development ________.Can only operate on realityCannot “operate on operations”No longer require concrete things and events as objects of thoughtCannot yet come up with general logical rules through internal reflection
5 points QUESTION 32The lifespan perspective on human development assumes that development is:Static and stableMultidimensional and multidirectionalContinuous, rather than discontinuousLargely the result of heredity
5 points QUESTION 33Eleven-year-old Leah has developed a sense of competence at a number of useful skills and tasks. She has a positive but realistic self-concept and takes pride in her accomplishments. According to Erikson, Leah has what?Positively resolved the psychological conflict of middle childhoodDeveloped an ideal self that guides her behaviorYet to encounter the psychological conflict of middle childhoodOvercome the conflict of role confusion
10 points QUESTION 34Unlike Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky viewed cognitive development as a ________ process.Socially mediatedGenetically predictablePreoperationalNeurological
5 points QUESTION 35According to Vygotsky, _______is a range of tasks that a child cannot yet handle alone but can do with the help of more skilled partners.Transitive inferenceThe dynamic systems approachThe zone of proximal developmentScaffolding
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