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Question 1: Must ethical standards be absolute, or are there times when exceptio

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Question 1: Must ethical standards be absolute, or are there times when exceptions should be allowed? Provide examples of both cases.Question 2: How can
managers and/or accountants maintain their personal and professional
codes of ethics when pressured to engage in unethical behavior that will
benefit them? Feel free to bring in real-life illustrations.Pick one the topic above then discuss it. Also response each posted # 1 and 2 down below.Posted 1Question 1: Must ethical standards be absolute, or are there times when exceptions should be allowed? Provide examples of both cases.I
believe that ethical standards should be absolute. Allowing
expectations assumes that people “know better”. Which cannot be assumed
in a professional environment, because if everyone knew better, there
would be no need for ethical standards. There are many different
cultures, with various cultural traditions. Having an absolute ethical
standard aims to ensure that work related interactions does not offend
any of them.For
example, Brazil is a more relaxed culture, so it is common for them to
arrive late for business/social meetings. In American culture being late
is considered unprofessional. To respond to their punctuality
unethically because of one’s expectations would not benefit its
business. It is best to respond by following a code the reflects
understanding, professionalism, and respect. It is best to always stick
to the code.Posted 2Question
2: How can managers and/or accountants maintain their personal and
professional codes of ethics when pressured to engage in unethical
behavior that will benefit them? Feel free to bring in real-life
illustrations.This
is a matter of mindset. Although I sadly agree that sometimes unethical
behavior can really promote some benefit for managers and/or
accountants in the immediate and short term. This is extremely risky and
can cost the death of their reputation or even the end of their careers
and companies. Brooks & Dunn (2016) mentioned the story of John
DeLorean, the CEO of a small car company who fell into the temptation to
do something completely illegal and unethical to help the finances of
his company, he decided to sell cocaine to help his company however he
ended up arrested and his company collapsed into bankruptcy. In this
case, probably DeLorean made some easy money in the very beginning of
his involvement with cocaine business, however, in the end, the
consequence was a tragedy.We
live in an age that consumers and governor’s authorities don’t tolerate
any kind of unethical behavior. Needless to say that the evolution of
technology makes transactions much more transparent and easier to be
checked and audited. The temptation to follow the unethical path is
always high, but the end is usually very bad. This is why some companies
like the one that I work for, CITGO Petroleum Corp. obliges all their
employees to read and sign their ethical code every year to maintain
everyone engaged. Besides this they also have a whistleblower phone and
policy, they disseminate the ethical code with all and always remind everyone about the severe punishments in case of breach of it.Reference Brooks,
Leonard J., Dunn, Paul, (2016). Business and Professional Ethics for
Directors, Executives & Accountants; (8th Edition). Boston, MA,
Cengage. Learning.
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