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I’m working on a Biology question and need guidance to help me study.Natural Selection for Bird Beak Shapes1. Write a hypothesis regarding beak shape and the ability to gather food.2. Identify the independent and dependent variable in this activity.3. Perform the experiment for each type of beak then record your data in the table below.Beak typePaper clips Unpopped PopcornRubber BandsLima BeansMarblesHuxley’s SparrowHenslow’s sparrowEmma’s SparrowHooker’s Sparrow4. Discuss your findings regarding feeding in the sparrows. Which sparrow’s beak was best adapted to each particular type of food? Which sparrow’s beak was least adapted to each particular type of food?5. In nature, why is being a generalist sometimes an advantage over being a specialist?Paleontological EvidenceUsing the geologic time scale above, you can trace the history of life beginning with the evolution of the prokaryotic cell at the bottom of the time scale. A Geologic Time Scale is a vertical timeline representing EONERAPERIODEPOCHMILLIONS OF YRSAGOMAJOR BIOLOGICAL EVENTSHolocene.01Rise of civilization and agriculture. Extinction of large mammals in northern hemisphere.QuaternaryPleistocene1.8Modern humans appear. Four major glaciations cause rapid shifts in ecological communities. Pliocene5Extensive radiation of flowering plants and mammals. First hominids appear.NeogeneMiocene23Coevolution of insects and flowering plants. Dogs and bears appear.Oligocene38Worldwide tropical rainforests. Pigs, cats, and rhinos appear. Dominence of snails and bivalves in the oceans.Eocene54Early mammals abundant. Rodents, primitive whales and grasses appear.CENOZOICTertiaryPaleogenePaleocene65Early placental mammals appear; first primates; modern birds.Cretaceous146Marsupials, ants, bees, butterflies, flowering plants appear. Mass extinction of most large animals and many plants.Jurassic208Dinosaurs and gymnosperms dominate the land; feathered dinosaurs and birds appear. Radiation of marine reptiles.MESOZOICTriassic245Origin of mammals, dinosaurs and true flies. Less diverse marine fauna.Permian286Gymnosperms, amphibians dominant. Beetles, stoneflies appear. Major extinction of 95% of marine species and 50% of all animal families.Pennsylvanian325First reptiles, cockroaches and mayflies appear. Extensive coal swamp forests. Sponge reefs.CarboniferousMissippian360Echinoderms, bryozoans dominant in oceans. Early winged insects. First coal swamp forests.Devonian410First amphibians. Extensive radiation of fish, land plants. Many corals, brachiopods and echinoderms.Silurian440First spiders, scorpions, centipedes, early insects, vascular plants, jawed fish and large reefs appear.Ordovician505First land plants, primitive fungi, sea weed appear. Diverse marine life: corals, molluscs, bivalves, echinoderms, etc.PHANEROZOICPALEOZOICCambrian543Rise of all major animal groups. Metazoan life abundant; trilobites dominant. First fish. No known terrestrial life. PROTEROZOIC EON570Origin of multicelled organisms. First sponges, colonial algae and soft-bodied invertebrates. ARCHEAN EON2,500Oxygen levels rise as a result of photosynthetic organisms.First eukaryotes (single-celled algae): 1.4 billion years old.Earliest life, anaerobic prokaryotes (bacteria, archaeans) originate 3.5 billion years ago. HADEAN EON3,800-4,600No life known. Cooling and solidifying of Earth’s events in Earth’s history. The Geologic Time Scale is divided into blocks of time that represent great changes in Earth’s biodiversity. Just like the formation of earth layer, the older layer is at the bottom. The geologic time scale represents older biological events at the bottom of the scale, going hand in hand with the earth strata. 6. Using the geologic time scale. Answer the following question:1. During what era and period did the first flowering plant appear? How many million years was this?2. During what period did the coal forests form?3. Name the epoch during which modern humans appeared.4. Match the description with the appropriate subdivision of the geologic time scale. Use each term once.Description Term_____ Hadean, Archaean, and Proterozoic A. Paleozoic_____ Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous B. Cenozoic_____ Tertiary and Quaternary C. Precambrian_____ Cambrian,Ordovician, Silurian, D.MesozoicDevonian, Carboniferous, and Permian-Procedure 1, page 229 Comparative Anatomical Evidence
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