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I need help with a Psychology question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.Respond to at least two of your colleagues’ postings in one or more of the following ways: Suggest an additional insight about psychosocial aspects of illness and management that your colleague did not explain. Analyze your colleague’s post. Expand on the post by providing a different perspective on social work practice skills. Share an additional insight you gained from reading a colleague’s post about caregiver burden for his or her selected illness. Be sure to respond with reference. DB 1 Keliah— Description of HIV and the psychosocial effects of the illness on patients and families The number of individuals living with chronic illness in the United States has significantly risen over the past several decades as medical science dramatically increased its ability to extend lives with advances in medical technology and most recently through the implementation of chronic care treatment models (Anderson et. Al., 2004). Currently, one out of every five Americans has more than one chronic condition, representing a challenge for the public health system (Benjamin, 2010). Approximately 1.2 million people in the United States are living with HIV and 1 in 7 don’t know (HIV.gov, 2020). One of the most common mental health issues people with HIV face is depression, which increases depending on the severity of the disease. The illness affects the mental and emotional state of the individual diagnosed. Challenges with mental health related to HIV can consist of access to health services and consistency of care and treatment. Fear, isolation, stigma, and discrimination also affect the person diagnosed mental state. Analyze the issues and concerns surrounding the care and management of the illness Even though HIV is now considered a treatable long-term chronic illness, it is suggested that stigma and discrimination, and resulting fears around disclosure, remain key barriers to effective care and prevention (Foreman, 2016). While rushing to normalize HIV as a chronic treatable illness, there are people who have been left to deal with their psychosocial impact and many of those people no longer feel cared for. We as social workers must ensure that we can advocate for the continuation of resources for support and care. Some individuals with HIV are living impoverished, face challenges with unemployment, homelessness, lack of adequate health insurance, and many other social vulnerabilities. Choose three medical social work practice skills and explain how a medical social worker might implement them to improve the care and management of the illness Critical thinking, active listening, and empathy are important practice skills to implement to improve the care and management of HIV for a patient. Critical thinking is essential to use with patients who have HIV because you must think of different ways to advocate and research ways and programs for treatment that best suit your patient. Active listening is important to the improvement the care and management of the patient because the patient must tell us where they feel they need the help. If a patient is complaining that they can’t find the proper treatment doctors, we must help them with locating care teams that will assist them with their needs. If they are complaining of emotional distress, we advocate for services for the client to get them the mental health they need. The care of an individual with a chronic illness can be challenging on both a personal/patient level as well as dealing with the health care system (Gehlert & Browne, 2006)Empathy is essential and important to the care of the patient. We have to show care and concern for their situation and not isolate their emotions any more than they already feel isolated. Explain challenges that might arise for families or caregivers caring for a patient with your chosen illness Caregivers face challenges when caring for these patients are inadequate education on the illness, inadequate sources of counseling, lack of motivation, weak support, time management, emotional and physical stress, financial strains, depression and isolation, and worry. Caring for a patient with HIV requires a lot of patience and commitment. They go through highs and lows with emotions and health and you must be ready to out your personal things aside to take care of theirs. This builds frustration and anxiety. Explain how you as a medical social worker might address the struggles or challenges experienced by families or caregivers As social workers, we can help caregivers find counseling programs, assist with the education of the chronic illness that the patient has, provide information for financial services and ensure that we are advocating for them the same way we advocate for the patient. They put a lot into the care and survival of the patient but they also need to be cared for. Resources Anderson, G., Herbert, T., Zeffiro, T., Johnson, N. (2004) Chronic conditions: Making the case for ongoing care, Baltimore, MD: Partnership for Solutions, Johns Hopkins University Benjamin, R. M. (2010) Multiple chronic conditions: A public health challenge. Public Health Reports 125(5): 626–627. Google Scholar | SAGE Journals | ISI Findley, P. A. (2013, February 28). Social work practice in the chronic care model: Chronic illness and disability care. Journal of Social Work [Published online ahead of print]. Foreman, M. & Ni Rathaille, N. (2016). Not just another long term chronic illness— Social work and HIV in Ireland. Social Work in Action, 28(2), 97-114. Gehlert, S., Browne, T. A. (2006) Handbook of health social work, New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. HIV.gov. U.S Statistics. June 30, 2020. Retrieved from https://www.hiv.gov/hivbasics/overview/data-and-tr… DB 2 Hannah— Post a brief description of the illness you selected and the psychosocial effects of the illness on patients and families. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disorder that can have a severe impact on patient’s lives. This present study investigated four questions regarding the psychosocial effects on patients and their well partners. First, it was found that depression for both patients and partners were slightly elevated and 35.7% of patients and 23.3% of well partners had scores above the cut-off for possible clinical depression on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Second, there was no significant difference between the patients’ level of distress and that of the partners. Third, there were moderate positive correlations between patients’ and partners’ scores on measures of psychological functioning. Fourth, there were no differences in either the patients’ or partners’ well-being based on the gender of the patient. Finally, an exploratory analysis was conducted to examine the factors which influence the patients’ and partners’ depression and their view of the relationship (Walsh, Blanchard, Kremer, & Blanchard, 1999). Analyze the issues and concerns surrounding the care and management of the illness. The VIGOR study was designed primarily to compare gastrointestinal events in patients with rheumatoid arthritis randomly assigned to treatment with rofecoxib (Vioxx) or naproxen (Naprosyn), but data on cardiovascular events were also monitored. Three myocardial infarctions, all in the rofecoxib group, were not included in the data submitted to the Journal. The editors first became aware of the additional myocardial infarctions in 2001 when updated data were made public by the Food and Drug Administration. Until the end of November 2005, we believed that these were late events that were not known to the authors in time to be included in the article published in the Journal on November 23, 2000. It now appears, however, from a memorandum dated July 5, 2000, that was obtained by subpoena in the Vioxx litigation and made available to the Journal, that at least two of the authors knew about the three additional myocardial infarctions at least two weeks before the authors submitted the first of two revisions and 4 1/2 months before publication of the article. Given this memorandum, it appears that there was ample time to include the data on these three additional infarctions in the article (Curfman, Morrissey, & Drazen, 2005). Choose three medical social work practice skills and explain how a medical social worker might implement them to improve the care and management of illness. AIMS is a four-step protocolized care coordination model designed to assist adult patients with complex medical and nonmedical needs. The goal of AIMS is to integrate medical and nonmedical needs, such as psychosocial and environmental needs, to address health care outcomes, reduce the use of unnecessary health services, improve patient satisfaction with the health care delivery system, and help primary health care providers support their patients (Rizzo, Rowe, Kricke, Krajci, & Golden, 2016). The AIMS model is delivered by master’s-level social workers and is rooted in core social work competencies that align with the Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards articulated by the Council on Social Work Education (2015). The model is delivered telephonically, in person, or both and is typically completed in six weeks. Patients with nonmedical needs are identified by primary health care physicians or nurses and referred to the AIMS team. Referred patients are served by social workers who deliver AIMS in four steps: (1) patient engagement, (2) assessment and care plan development, (3) case management, and (4) ongoing care as needed (Rizzo, Rowe, Kricke, Krajci, & Golden, 2016). Explain challenges that might arise for families or caregivers caring for a patient with your chosen illness. Caregivers typically care for the rheumatoid arthritis patients on average for >11 years, reflecting the chronic nature of rheumatoid arthritis. They provide a substantial amount of care (27.4 hours per week) and are moderately strained (24.6 on the self‐rated burden scale). Caregivers are relatively healthy on average, but caregivers of more severe rheumatoid arthritis patients are relatively unhealthy, which may indicate health losses due to caregiving (Brouwer, et al., 2004). References Brouwer, W. B., Exel, N. J., Berg, B. v., Dinant, H. J., Koopmanschap, M. A., & Bos, G. A. (2004). Burden of caregiving: Evidence of objective burden, subjective burden, and quality of life impacts on informal caregivers of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care & Research . Curfman, G. D., Morrissey, S., & Drazen, J. M. (2005). Expression of Concern: Bombardier et al., “Comparison of Upper Gastrointestinal Toxicity of Rofecoxib and Naproxen in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis,” N Engl J Med 2000;343:1520-8. The New England Journal of Medicine, 353:2813 – 2814. Rizzo, V. M., Rowe, J. M., Kricke, G. S., Krajci, K., & Golden, R. (2016). AIMS: A Care Coordination Model to improve Patient Health Outcomes. Health Social Work, 191 – 195. Walsh, J. D., Blanchard, E. B., Kremer, J. M., & Blanchard, C. G. (1999). The psychosocial effects of rheumatoid arthritis on the patient and the well partner. Behaviour Research and Therapy , 259 – 271. Requirements: TBD

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