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Need help with my Management question – I’m studying for my class.I need two response to the two post below make sure you put post 1 and post 2 for each questions Post 1: 1.What organizational strategy (defender, prospector, analyzer, reactor) was Dean Barnes pursuing? Discuss the strategy Dean Blake is pursuing. What do you perceive to be his objectives? Does this strategy make sense in terms of the internal and external environment of the school? Dean Barnes was pursuing a defender strategy in his management of the business school by offering a specific curriculum to a narrowly defined student population. Utilizing this typology allowed Barnes to make improvements to the business school while maintaining a very stable environment. The defender strategy also has the benefit of typically being very cost-efficient, allowing the business school to maintain a steady budget. (Sarac, 2019) As a self-described innovator, Dean Blake is implementing a prospector strategy as he formulates plans to expand the services offered and attract a much larger student base. His ultimate goal is to offer learning opportunities to as many people as possible. The future student demographic shifts that are expected make the timing right for the changes that Blake is proposing. The internal environment, however, is not ideal because the school is already short five professors and the others have not been prepared for change. 2.Identify the key problems and the key opportunities in this case. Problems: The shrinking demographic of 18–22-year-old students poses a threat to enrollment numbers.
The professors are unhappy with the proposed changes, which could lead to low morale, turnover, and damage to the school’s reputation.
3.Dean Blake does not appear to be well versed in the strategic steps needed to implement organizational change that is well received and ultimately successful. Opportunities: Blake was hired by a diverse search committee signaling that his proposed changes are supported by a wide array of stakeholders.
2.Several new revenue streams have been identified that the university has never before tapped into. 3.Formulate an HR strategic plan that will support Dean Blake’s new organizational strategy. Your plan will make recommendations for HR activities in the areas of staffing, performance management, compensation, and employee relations (the ER section should address issues of communication and employee participation and provide recommendations on how Blake’s changes should have been introduced to the faculty). Support your recommendations with appropriate HR theories, concepts, models, and processes (utilizing your textbook as a reference). Dean Blake must first craft a mission statement that clearly articulates the full scope of his plans. My recommendation is to create a mission statement that pays homage to the history of the school while expanding its vision to bring high quality and dynamic learning to students in all stages of life and for all business pursuits. The overall long-term plan should be developed based on the industrial organization model. Advances in technology and cultural shifts affecting work and school are among the external factors that must be acted upon. The business school, however, has critical internal resources (current professors) at its disposal that should be inventoried and utilized to the greatest advantage when deciding how and when to implement the new business streams. Staffing: The formal staffing plan should be preceded by an analysis of the work culture presently existing in the organization. The success of the new employees and the expansion plan will be largely influenced by creating a cohesive team of professors. The subsequent elements of the staffing plan should be developed keeping this culture in mind and striving to develop systems that support a unified team. A job analysis must be performed to establish exactly what job positions will be required and what the required KSAO’s are for each. Due to the diverse nature of multiple teaching sites, specialized degree programs, and practitioner courses being proposed, the university will need an equally diverse staff including tenure and non-tenure-track professors, adjunct professors, and business executives turned teachers to fill their needs. The university should use a targeted regional recruitment strategy to attract applicants. Because the new programs will be most likely be rolled out at various intervals, I suggest that the university make use of a candidate relationship manager who can begin making connections with potential employees and then maintain those relationships until the various class offerings are brought on board. Candidate screenings processes should include personality and knowledge-based testing used in conjunction with behavioral/ situation-based interviews completed by multi-discipline teams. Performance Management: A performance appraisal system should be developed that addresses the school’s strategic goals and serves to promote employee development, reduce performance deficiencies, and ensure consistent quality of services across business lines. Blake’s previous instruction to the Chairs regarding performance criteria should be placed on hold until a thorough and equitable system is established. Care should be taken to not push out existing staff by suddenly shifting their job requirements. Annual or bi-annual 360 reviews should be implemented that include peers, department heads, students, and other stakeholders using behavior-based measures and outcomes/results criteria. An objectives-based performance appraisal system will allow employees and their supervisors to customize objectives specific to their job scope and experience. In addition to being customizable, this system will make employees active participants in their appraisal, thus enhancing morale. Compensation: I recommend that the university employ a market-based policy when setting its compensation levels to avoid salary compression. The salary structure should focus on internal equity while being as transparent as possible. The university should disclose the salary range for each position and ensure that staff members know exactly how their individual salaries will be calculated. Each position should have a base salary plus additional amounts that are determined based on factors such as seniority and experience. A merit pay system that compensates individuals based on their personal performance should be utilized to determine salary increases over time. Employee Relations One of Blake’s greatest resources is his current staff of professors. He must take advantage of the fact that he has a building full of education experts (experience that he is lacking) who can assist in formulating the expansion plan. Blake must open the lines of communication with his professors and incorporate them into the development of the expansion plan. This will be a vital part of both implementing his plan and building cohesiveness within his staff. Prior to moving forward with any future plans, Blake must develop a thorough and intentional organizational change plan that will win acceptance from current professors and staff. To do this he must develop a vision and be able to communicate it in ways that will create urgency and excitement for the plan. He should also work to build a coalition of professors, students, and other stakeholders who can reinforce the benefits of the change that is happening. References Mello, J. A. (2019). Strategic Human Resource Management (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage. Sarac, M. (2019). Which Firms Outperforms the Others Under Uncertainty: Revisiting Miles and Snow Typology. International Journal of Social Inquiry, 12(1), 261-285. Retrieved from https://web-a-ebscohost-com.libproxy.troy.edu/ehos… Post 2: 1.What organizational strategy (defender, prospector, analyzer, reactor) was Dean Barnes pursing? Discuss the strategy Dean Blake is pursuing. What do you perceive to be his objectives? Does this strategy make sense in terms of the internal and external environment of the school? The organizational strategy that Dean Barnes was pursing was a defender strategy. According to Barney and Griffin (1992), the defender strategy stays within it’s current market and maintains growth. The administration under Dean Barnes saw enrollment grow steadily and focused his efforts on maintaining an emphasis on traditional programs. While Dean Barnes was successful during his tenure, evident by the steady increase in enrollment each year along with the increase of faculty with terminal degrees and stability with the current market, Dean Barnes did not take the school in any new directions. Dean Barnes failed to adjust the programs to meet a new and growing demographic of student, instead he sought to “do the same things better.” Dean Barnes failed to lead the Business School and it’s programs in any new directions that would have provided growth and competitive advantage to both Old State University and the School of Business Administration. The actions of Dean Barnes directly align with the defender strategy described by Miles and Snow. While Dean Barnes took a defender approach to organizational strategy, Dean Blake opted to purse a prospector strategy. The prospector strategy is one in which great innovation is pursued; new markets and opportunities are sought in order to grow the organization, despite the risks involved (Barney & Griffin, 1992). Dean Blake saw opportunities to take the University and School of Business Administration in new directions. Dean Blake immediately upon hire sought to find out what was working for the organization, what didn’t work, and how to improve. The process of strategic management allows an organization to attempt to determine what strategies need to be incorporated in order to meet strategic objectives as well as how objectives will be met (Mello, 2019). The strategic management process is five steps, and it was through this process that Dean Blake was able to develop a proper strategy in order to achieve the goals and objectives that he established. Dean Blake’s first objective was to move in a new direction and explore new markets. In order to achieve this objective Dean Blake’s first step was to form a Strategic Planning Committee who then evaluated the University’s external environment, opportunities, constraints, competitive advantages, and internal environment. The results of this environmental analysis allowed Dean Blake to recommend a new strategic plan that would provide a competitive advantage to the University through the new programs and market he sought to break into. The Strategic Planning Committee made seven specific recommendations to Dean Blake which were all authorized. These recommendations exploited market opportunities and would propel the school in the direction that Dean Blake envisioned. Dean Blake’s second objective was to make changes to the faculty. The first step in achieving this objective is to hire for the five vacant positions. Dean Blake was very specific in the people he wanted to fill these positions; they needed to support the new direction the school was moving towards and he wanted them to have specific criteria. The criteria that Dean Blake proposed to the departments chairs for the new hires were previous managerial experience, a willingness to teach at night, a willingness to travel, ability to work with management practitioners on special projects, and previous experience in teaching executives. The second step in achieving Dean Blake’s second objective was to make changes to the current performance evaluation process. Dean Blake recommended using the same criteria he sought for the vacant positions to be considered during performance evaluations. The change in performance criteria would then assist in future recommendations in salary increases for the faculty. The second and third stages of strategic management involves an analysis of the environment. This involves analyzing both the internal and external environment in order to identify threats, opportunities, strengths, and weaknesses (Mello, 2019). The Strategic Planning Committee was able to successfully identify these elements and based off their findings presented their recommendations to Dean Blake on how to achieve his objectives. The internal environment of the organization lacked flexibility with the format of it’s education programs and the lack of diverse options for continuing education that meet the current and growing market of non-traditional students. By offering more evening courses for both undergraduate and graduate students, restructuring schedules so that both undergraduate and graduate degrees could be completed entirely through evening courses, offering credit courses in suburban locations, offering noncredit practitioner courses via different locations as well as the possibility of offering degree programs at these locations in the future, expanding degree concentrations, and offering a new executive MBA, Dean Blake’s strategy makes sense given the internal and external environment of the school. The National Center of Education Statistics (NCES) defines nontraditional as a student that has one or more of the following characteristics: being independent for financial aid purposes, having one or more dependents, being a single caregiver, not having a traditional high school diploma, delaying postsecondary enrollment, attending school part time, and being employed full time. In a 2015 report, the NCES states that at least 70% of undergraduates had at least one nontraditional characteristic. Given this large percentage of nontraditional students, Dean Blake’s strategy will reach a much broader population of student given the external environment of the school. As far as the internal environment, Dean Blake’s strategy does make sense but there are more elements that require further analysis and action in order to ensure the second objective is successful. Making changes to the current performance evaluation system requires a culture change throughout the University, not just the school itself. The University controls what happens with the school; therefore, Dean Blake cannot just change performance management process’ at the school without in effecting the rest of the University. There would have to be an alignment across the entire organization in order to make this particular strategy and objective successful. 1.Identify the key problems and the key opportunities in this case. There are several problems and opportunities in this case. The first problem is the lack of innovation and thus a lack of growth despite there being a clear market that can be tapped into. With Dean Barnes only focusing on the school’s current demographic range of students, the traditional college freshmen straight out of high school, he has forced the organization to remain in it’s current state. While the current state of the organization has seen stable enrollment growth, the organization has the ability and capability to expand much further. A second key problem in this case is a lack of diverse options for nontraditional students. The current programs target the traditional student, evening courses and/or distant learning courses do not exist and therefore the nontraditional student will seek education elsewhere. The small enrollment numbers for MBA students is largely due to students that stay for an additional two years, again due to the lack of options for the nontraditional student. The third key problem in this case is the resistance to change from the current faculty. The current faculty feels threatened by the proposed changes to the performance evaluation process, they are also reluctant the proposed additions and changes to the programs as they were hired to teach full-time students on campus during day time hours. All of the key problems listed above allow for opportunities in this case. Dean Blake made a statement that he wanted to explore new markets, his awareness of a market that is not already being exploited allows for an opportunity for both the University and School to formulate a strategy for growth based on the external environment. By making the recommended changes and improvements proposed by the Strategic Planning Committee, a broader pool of potential students will exist for recruitment efforts to be focused on. Opportunities also exist within the internal environment. If the current vacant positions are filled with personnel that meet the criteria that Dean Blake is seeking, those new hires will further the organization’s strategic objectives. There is also an opportunity for a culture change at the University. While there is reluctance from the current faculty, if Dean Blake can communicate to the faculty how these changes will benefit rather than harm them and invite them to be involved in the change process, this obstacle can surely be overcome. 1.Formulate an HR strategic plan that will support Dean Blake’s new organizational strategy. Your plan will make recommendations for HR activities in the areas of staffing, performance management, compensation, and employee relations (the ER section should address issues of communication and employee participation and provide recommendations on how Blake’s changes should have been introduced to the faculty). Support your recommendations with appropriate HR theories, concepts, models and processes (utilizing your textbook as a reference). An HR strategic plan is essential to the implementation and success of an organization. Once the organization has established goals and objectives the next step is to set the strategy and determine HR’s role in that strategy. The HR strategic planning process involves taking the goals and objectives and formulating programs and policies that will manage employees (Mello, 2019). As part of the HR strategy, Old State University’s HR Department will need to make to take part in strategic workforce planning. HR activities such as staffing, performance management, compensation, and employee relations are derived from the process of strategic workforce planning (Mello, 2019). Staffing is a key component to workforce planning and has a significant impact on an organization. The first component of the staffing process is recruitment. The first step is to determine if new hires will temporary or permanent employees. Old State will need to forecast out any positions that may become vacant due to retirement or other unforeseen circumstances in order to determine how large of an applicant pool is needed for each position and whether that position needs to be full-time or part-time. Depending on the current pool of employees and their qualifications, internal recruiting could also be utilized if at all possible, in order to provide opportunities for advancement and development. The recruitment strategy should be creative when recruiting for any position, utilizing platforms such as LinkedIn to look for possible candidates. The use of social media is an excellent marketing outlet, the University should include different platforms in it’s marketing and recruitment strategy in order to target candidates and post job opportunities. The University should also be proactive in the culture and brand that is being projected to the community. Employment branding should be a priority as part of the staffing process to as it directly effects recruiting efforts. According to the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) Foundation, an organization must be able to communicate their culture and how the organization treats it’s employees; as a result of a strong brand, organizations will see an increase of interested candidates and loyal employees. Sites such as LinkedIn, YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter can all be utilized to post messages from current employees about what it is like to work for the organization, post recruitment videos, and post job opportunities. The recruiting team should conduct career fairs and participate in candidate relationship management. This process will enable the team to build and maintain relationships with candidates so when the timing is right for both parties, the relationship that has been developed is capitalized on (Mello, 2019). Once the University has a pool of applicants, they will begin the process of screening and potential selection. The interview process will include the immediate supervisor and a member of the recruiting team. Interviews should be conducted individually and should be structured. A variety of scenario/situation questions will be utilized. When at all possible, questions that result in simply a yes or no answer should be refrained from being used. Employment testing will be a requirement, specifically behavioral testing. This test will measure important traits such as friendliness and dependability in future applicants so that the best match is made for a person-organization fit. Another aspect to the staffing process is retention. A retention strategy should be developed that aligns with the organization’s vision and values. A retention strategy is not just about money, employees want to be engaged and developed by their organization. According to Cloutier et al. (2015), “workforce diversity, quality talent and relational growth determine the stability of the workplace” (p.120). Old State University needs to be committed to a retention strategy that targets areas that are important to employees. One way they can do this is to develop surveys where employees can be open and honest on their opinions of the organization and it’s culture/climate. These surveys can be done via an online system that will allow the employee to remain anonymous and provide feedback on several different aspects of the organization such as culture, management, development, and other areas that may affect retention. Once the results of the survey are analyzed, Old State University can determine a proper strategy for retention. A proper strategy should include competitive salaries, an onboarding program, a training and development program, retention bonuses and other reward related options (discussed in further detail in subsequent paragraph), a mentorship program, wellness programs, and flexible work arrangements that foster a work-life balance culture within the organization. Old State University needs to have an effective performance management system in order to evaluate it’s staff and ensure that objectives are being met. Employees and their supervisors must work together in order to set performance expectations, assess goals, provide/receive feedback, and analyze performance based on the established expectations and goals. Old State University needs to identify every employee that is serving in a role in which they oversee other employees. Workshops and training will be provided to ensure that managers are trained properly on the performance management system. Performance evaluations will be conducted on an annual basis, within the anniversary month of the employee’s hire date. Quarterly informal reviews will be held between manager and employee, analyzing where the employee is at in terms of performance in relation to the expectation and goals that were discussed upon hire. Performance goals should align with the organization’s goals and objectives. Goals should also utilize the SMART technique; specific, measurable, attainable, relevant to the mission of the organization, and have a timeline. Training and development opportunities will also be decided upon based on the informal and formal evaluations along with an evaluation on job rotation opportunities to ensure employees are provided opportunities for advancement. During these informal reviews goals can be adjusted in order to align with any new priorities or policies. All reviews, informal and formal, will be kept in an online database so that HR can track and manage all reviews. In order to successfully evaluate employees, Old State University will utilize a graphic rating scale (GRS) using a scale of four ratings: below expectations, meets expectations, exceeds expectations, and exceptional. The evaluations will rate the employees on the following areas: quality of work, attendance and dependability, leadership, presence, and achievements. Ideally both a GRS and a Behaviorally-anchored rating scale (BARS) performance management system would be used so that specific behaviors of an employee can be rated. The issue with BARS is that it is costly and time-consuming to design and implement. Once the formal evaluation is complete, it must be reviewed by the Department Chair and HR Manager. Evaluation reports will be used in determining eligibility for merit based pay. The compensation strategy for Old State University should seek to attract, retain, and reward staff. This strategy should encourage the highest levels of performance and reward those that meet those levels. The compensation strategy should either meet or lead the market, the potential to lead the market due to the addition of evening courses and requirement to work outside of normal business hours. By beating the market, Old State University can recruit and retain top talent. This will also enable them to project this into their employment branding, an overarching goal to become an employer of choice. The organization will need to examine the external market in order to determine accurate salaries for each job. A merit-based salary review program will be utilized in order to provide raises to employee’s based on their performance. The requirement for the Department chair to review evaluations is to make a recommendation to Dean Blake on the merit-based pay recommendations based on employee evaluations. All employees will receive a certain percentage equally across all staff, but those high performers will be eligible for an additional increase based on the merit-based pay system. The merit-based pay will contain a tiered scale based on the annual evaluations results. Indirect benefits include, but are not limited to, paid time off, health insurance, retirement plans, flexible work schedules, and tuition discounts. Paid time off benefits will increase at the 5, 10 and 15 year mark to incentive seniority and motivate employees to continue their employment with the organization. Employee relations is another strategic issue for an organization. Employee relations is the process of building strong relationships among employees and the employer. Employee relations include policies and processes that are fair and consistent. Old State University will produce an employee handbook where employees can readily access written policies and procedures. This handbook will also provide information on laws and regulations and the internal complaint procedure. This handbook, and all subsequent information, will be available on the employee internet portal so that it may be accessed at any time. A physical copy of the handbook can also be requested. Old State University will conduct annual employee surveys (mentioned previously) in order to receive feedback on the organization and job satisfaction. These surveys will help, among other things, will determine the level of satisfaction among employees and how they view the organization as an employer. Job enrichment and job rotation will be based on annual evaluations, these particular areas of employee relations will be identified by the employees’ immediate manager who has a better understanding of where the employee needs to be developed. One of the biggest dimensions of employee relations is communication. Proper communication among employees will lead to increase job satisfaction and morale. Poor communication will only lead to confusion and misunderstanding, as seen from the lack of proper communication from Dean Blake on his proposed changes. Dean Blake should have hosted a town hall type of meeting that was open to all employees. Through this forum he should have introduced and discussed his objectives and the proposed changes he was seeking to implement. Dean Blake should have engaged the employees, encouraging feedback and discussion about his approach in order to help them to understand why the changes are needed along with their role in the new objectives. An informal and open forum for discussion would have involved the employees in this process and a more positive reaction more than likely would have resulted. Clear communication promotes transparency among all levels of employees, their participation is important and should be a priority for Dean Blake going forward. References Cloutier, O., Felusiak, L., Hill, C., Pemberton-Jones, E. (2015). The importance of developing Strategies for employee retention. North American Business Press. Retrieved January 26, 2021, from www.m.www.na-businesspress.com/JLAE/Pemberton- (Links to an external site.) JonesEJ_Web12_2_.pdf (Links to an external site.) Mello, J.A. (2019). Strategic Human Resource Management (5th ed). Cengage Learning, Inc. National Association of Colleges and Employers. (2019). Professional standards for university relations and recruiting. https://www.naceweb.org/uploadedfiles/files/2020/publicaiton/2019-nace-professional-standards-for-college-and-university-career-services.pdf (Links to an external site.) National Center for Education Statistics. (2015, September). Demographic and enrollment characteristics of nontraditional undergraduates: 2011-12. https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2015/2015025.pdf Requirements: 500 to 800 | .doc file